Is wood gas syngas?
Properly dried and burned wood is an excellent green fuel for rural
A gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which – after cooling and filtering – can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes.
Producer gas, the gas generated when wood, charcoal or coal is gasified with air, consists of some 40 per cent combustible gases, mainly carbon monoxide, hydrogen and some methane. The rest are non-combustible and consists mainly of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour.
The three approaches that are most promising for making liquid fuels from wood are methanol, ethanol, and diesel fuel, but other liquid fuels from wood are possible. Methanol was the first fuel from wood and is often called wood alcohol. Ethanol has been the focus of research at the Forest Products Laboratory.
When wood is burned, the combustion reaction produces heat and emissions in the form of water, organic vapors, gases, and particulates. The emissions of most concern are carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Syngas can be produced from biomass via biochemical or thermochemical process. Woody biomass such as saw dust, wood chips and barks, agro residues such as straw, bagasse and grasses, waste cardboard, and solid waste collected from cities are few examples of potential source of biomass for syngas production.
And the wood gasification units burn much, much cleaner than wood stoves because of the high temperatures. They actually burn off almost all of the smoke and gasses, turning even these into additional energy.
Wood gas, also known as holzgas, air gas or blue gas, is the product of thermal gasification of biomass or other carbon containing materials such as coal in a gasifier or wood gas generator.
Wood gas is a fuel gas that can be used for furnaces, stoves, and vehicles.
Wood gas generators have a number of advantages over use of petroleum fuels: They can be used to run internal combustion engines (or gas turbines, for maximal efficiency) using wood, a renewable resource, and in the absence of petroleum or natural gas, for example, during a fuel shortage.
Is wood gas toxic?
Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn, including over 100 hazardous chemicals that are toxic and carcinogenic (cancer-causing). When breathed in, these fine particles can lodge in our lungs.
If the fibre is dried to the point where there is little remaining moisture, the chemicals within the wood fibre oxidize and produce gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The resulting fuel gas mixture is called synthesis gas (or syngas) and may be flammable or explosive.
A wood gasification boiler. Wood is burned in the firebox (top), and gases travel downward and are burned at 1,800 to 2,000 F in the ceramic chamber below. The hot gases then pass through a fire-tube heat exchanger to transfer heat to water stored in a large tank.
Production. Syngas is produced by steam reforming or partial oxidation of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons, or coal gasification. Steam reforming of methane is an endothermic reaction requiring 206 kJ/mol of methane: CH 4 + H 2O → CO + 3 H.
Additionally, wood burning as a domestic fuel source and for charcoal production release significant amounts of methane on a global scale. Accidental fire and arson account for further large scale biomass burning events each year around the world.
Wood smoke is made up of over 100 different chemicals and compounds including particulates, carbon monoxide, methane, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dioxins, lead, cadmium and arsenic. It contains harmful toxins and other substances known to cause cancer.
What is syngas? Syngas is made up of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, water vapours and other hydrocarbons and condensable compounds and it creates a synthetic natural gas.
In the Fischer–Tropsch process syngas reacts in the presence of a catalyst, transforming into liquid products (primarily diesel fuel and jet fuel) and potentially waxes (depending on the FT process employed).
Emissions from syngas combustion in turbines, engines and boilers are discussed in this review. The types of emissions considered include the unburned fuel components and partially oxidized species, nitrogen and sulfur-containing gases, volatile organic compounds, and other trace elements.
Extensive use of woods as a source of energy will result in deforestation and consequently raise the carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) level in out atmosphere and also disrupt the natural habitat of many species.
Is it OK to burn wood?
Likewise, the wood you burn is really important. It goes without saying, but burning anything that has been treated (like old furniture or fence panels) is a massive no-no. Not only do they burn badly, but they can emit toxic pollutants into your home and the environment.
Wood gasification boilers use technology based on a better understanding of how wood burns to achieve 85% net efficiency7 and produce no visible smoke.
Most types of hardwood, for instance Ash (generally regarded as the best), Birch, Beech, Oak and Elm can be used. However, avoid burning woods with a high resin content. As a rule of thumb, the heavier the wood, then the greater the heat output and the longer burn time – the time between refills.
Splinter - The World's First Wooden Supercar
The Splinter is an operational, high-performance sports car that took five years to build. Obviously, not all parts of the car could be created using wood, but overall, the Splinter is 90% wood.
Certain electric power plants in the United States and the rest of the world burn wood to generate electricity. Like coal and fuel oil, wood is burned in a boiler that heats water into steam. The steam then spins a turbine connected to an electric generator.